How to dispose placenta in Nigeria

If you decide that you do not want to bury the placenta, it cannot be disposed of in a domestic waste bin. Generally it takes around 10 days for a buried placenta to decompose. Burning the placenta: Another method of disposing placenta is to burn it ALSO SEE: How To Dispose Placenta After Birth In Nigeria. The Right Way to Handle Menstruation. The first thing to know is there's no right or wrong way to handle menstruation. Every woman is different, and so is her body's reaction to periods. That's why there are so many types of sanitary pads to choose from Home » How To Dispose Placenta After Birth In Nigeria » How To Dispose Placenta After Birth. admin. August 30, 2020 admin Comments Off on How To Dispose Placenta After Birth. Recent Posts. Can Gabapentin Cause Akathisia? Motivational Interviewing Techniques and Skills; What Are The 4 Principles of Motivational Interviewing The placenta can be dried, ground, and encapsulated. The capsules can then be taken daily for a number of weeks. You reap all of the healthful benefits of placenta quickly, easily and discreetly, and the capsules will last indefinitely (for years). When you have recovered from childbirth, you can freeze the capsules and save them for menopause Nigeria produces more than 3 million tons of waste annually, and uncontrolled waste burning is one of the practices that contribute to deteriorating air quality. Almost every Nigerian is exposed to air pollution levels exceeding WHO guidelines and inflicting significant air pollution damage costs. Despite these poor credentials the Nigerian government has declared its commitment [

How To Hygienically Dispose A Placenta After Birth

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The heat that is produced from the oil will push out the placenta after she is asked to push. While in a severe case it can be called out of the womb using incantation. While among the Igbo people of Nigeria, for instance, the mother chooses a place at the foot of a young tree, the more fruitful, the better The way to break loose is by being aggressive in prayer. Secondly, you must go to your parents and find out what was done with your placenta and how it was disposed. Thirdly, you should go for.. Menu. How to dispose placenta in nigeria

The umbilical cord is made up of three blood vessels: two smaller arteries which carry blood to the placenta and a larger vein which returns blood to the fetus. It can grow to be 60 cm long, allowing the baby enough cord to safely move around without causing damage to the cord or the placenta. After the baby is born, the cord is cut the. Err on the side of caution, retrieve it and do ensure that it is the placenta and not just some chunk of meat tied up in a polythene bag and handed to you. Please don't leave it with hospitals, with the promise that they will dispose of it for you. Collect it and destroy, decimate, obliterate, extinguish, crush it yourself The placenta was buried with the attached umbilical cord facing up. If it was buried facing down, the next birth is believed to end in miscarriage. The placenta is buried either by placing it directly in the hole or by placing it in an unglazed pot which is then buried. Placement in a pot signifies preservation, while direct burial into the soil signifies the return to the soil for rebirth; customs based on a belief in reincarnation frequently observed among farmers

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Based on the yin and yang dualism of Tao, burying the placenta either in a shady (yin) or sunny (yang) side of the wall is believed to enable the parents to choose the gender of the next child. The yang position facing the sun is usually favored because this will guarantee the next child will be a boy How does the environment and culture in Nigeria affect Lotus Births? Lotus birth should not be confused with some belief systems in Nigeria that give special significance to the placenta and so some mums/ families may wish to go home with their placenta and dispose of it according to their tradition A hospital cleaner has stolen the placenta of a newly-born child, cooked and ate it, in a bid to improve her skin tone. The parents of the newborn had asked the hospital authorities to keep the. attendant in a hospital and some people leave their babies' placenta for them to dispose of. She came with one about five days ago. She dropped the placenta. Nigeria can lead vaccines.

How Do You Dispose Placenter After Child Birth - Health

  1. Orange - clinical/infectious. Yellow - clinical/highly infectious. Blue - medicines (e.g. unused drugs) Purple - cytotoxic and/or cytostatic products (e.g. chemotherapy medicines) White - dental. Yellow and Black - offensive, but not hazardous. Black - municipal waste - ie. not clinical or medical waste
  2. Placenta and Cord Disposal Many of the disposal practices for the placenta and umbilical cord were driven by a fear of the infant being cursed by another community member wishing harm to the child. It was commonly believed that there were individuals in the community that if able to obtain the placenta, umbilical cord, or detached cord stump.
  3. Here are 10 things you can do with your placenta after giving birth. Plant it under a tree. Let the placenta grow with your newborn by planting it. Simply plant the placenta in the ground with a tree seedling and watch it grow. The nutrients from the placenta supposedly make a great fertiliser
  4. Placenta pizza anyone? Again this indicates that humans have a long history of consciously not eating the placenta and instead taking care to dispose of it properly, for the purpose of hygiene, culture or both. adolescent pregnancy is a major concern in Nigeria. We take a look at the causes and the many consequences of... 21 June 2021
  5. Erekpitan O. Ola-Adisa et al. Knowledge, Attitudes/Beliefs and Practices in Medical Waste Management - An Appraisal of Jos North LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria 44 International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies V2 I12 December 2015 more critical in today's environment is waste disposal the current trends of ineffective an
  6. Liver of the dam had the highest level of bioaccumulation and stronger correlation in the distribution to the placenta. It is therefore recommended that attention should be paid on the disposal of chromium (Cr) residues on the grazing floor where the bulk of the residues were from. Keywords : Heavy metals, Liver, Kidney, Placenta and cattle
  7. Let's assume you start with 100 goats (does) and they collectively birth 160 kids. If you sell each goat at current prices in Nigeria at N35, 000 ($100) each, then N35, 000 x 160 = N5, 600,000. Total expenses (does) maintenance and feeding will leave a profit margin of N4, 000, 0000

While most US women dispose of their afterbirth, many cultures have very specific rituals concerning the placenta and wouldn't dream of tossing it into the bin labeled medical waste Nigeria is a nation with different ethnic groups and religion and the people's beliefs about the disposal of placentas differs. The Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria bury placentas because they believe it could be used for diabolical means. Placentas are used for various ritual purposes Within the last year, 237 babies abandoned at birth by their mothers have been rescued by the Lagos state government. This is an alarming phenomenon that should disturb everyone in Nigeria. According to the commissioner for youth and social development, Mrs Uzamat Akinbile-Yussuf, during a media briefing in April, the abandoned babies are made up of 106 males and 131 females The Sole Administrator of Rivers State Waste Management Agency (RIWAMA), Felix Obuah, has decried the indiscriminate dumping of stillborn babies and placenta at the receptacles by maternity homes. Liver of the dam had the highest level of bioaccumulation and stronger correlation in the distribution to the placenta. It is therefore recommended that attention should be paid on the disposal of chromium (Cr) residues on the grazing floor where the bulk of the residues were from. Keywords : Heavy metals, Liver, Kidney, Placenta and cattle

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All posts tagged placenta disposal Not for the faintWhy New Mothers Are Choosing to Eat Their Own Placentas I read this article a few months ago during the summer months, and while admittedly I was turned off by the thought of consuming my own bloody afterbirth, I completely understood (and can even go as far as to say I wouldn't be. A two-man robbery gang, Monday night, attacked a 60-year-old woman at Agboju area of Lagos, dispossessing her of a bag containing placenta, cash and other valuables

Even as considerable gap exist with regards to assessment of healthcare waste management practices in Nigeria compared with international best practice elsewhere in developed countries of the work, health experts have called for the country to have a clear policy on medical waste management to be put in place at the institutional and national levels as well as train health workers to follow a. The issue here is that my husband has a pastor who he listens to; anything this pastor tells him he believes without thinking. When I gave birth to my first son, without my permission he gave my son's placenta to this so called pastor to pray and dispose it for him, till today my first son is two years and some months and he can't walk or talk The HCWM TWG presents in the second part concrete recommendations for how Nigeria can systematically improve HCWM to provide safe disposal of healthcare wastes. Finally, these recommendations are translated in the third part of this document into a strategic 5-year National Action Plan to progressively improve HCWM in Nigeria <p>O enterro da placenta, devidamente organizado pelo grupo de gestão terapêutica da mulher, beneficia o processo de criação de confiança entre as gerações, através do qual progenitores e descendência percorrem um ciclo que liga nascimento e morte, cultivo e enterro. July 7th, 2013 - Ritualists Now Buying Babies Placenta For Money Rituals In Nigeria Madam, I can help you raise. I've been w ondering what to do with my wife's placenta since it will be given to me(so I heard) after she delivers. I will appreciate your.

According to a study by Young and Benyshek (2010), 109 different cultures have specific ways of properly treating the placenta after birth, and burial was the most common with 55% of cultures choosing this method to honour the placenta. An example of this is how the Igbo in Ghana and Nigeria give the placenta full burial rights The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has been supporting the Bayelsa State Government to carry out measures to control the spread of the disease including actively searching for cases, isolation of identified cases, contact tracing, laboratory support and increasing disease awareness in the community and among health care workers My second pregnancy.I told the doctor not to give the placenta to my husband which they obeyed me. This pastor told my husband that I cheated on him with someone in my school and he believed. He was forcing me to tell him the truth, I told my husband I was not a wayward girl while I was single, is it now that I will be wayward

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Safe management of wastes from health-care activities / edited by Y. Chartier et al. - 2nd ed. 1.Medical waste. 2.Waste management. 3.Medical waste disposal - methods. 4.Safety management. 5.Handbook What appears to be waste to some holds immense importance for others - this is how the placenta's worth can be defined. For centuries upon centuries, countless cultures around the world have ceremonially handled the placenta because to them, it is a pure symbol of spirit, life and individuality.For this reason, several cultures tend to bury the placenta instead of just wasting it Prior to the advent of modern obstetric services, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have rendered services to pregnant women and women in labour for a long time. Although it is anticipated that women in contemporary societies will give birth in hospitals and clinics, some women still patronize the services of TBAs. The study therefore sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the. In ancient Egypt, it had its own hieroglyph, and the Ibo tribe in Nigeria and Ghana treats the placenta like a child's dead twin. In traditional Chinese medicine, small doses of human placenta are sometimes dried, mixed with herbs, and ingested to alleviate, among other things, impotence and lactation conditions After hearing every other conventional mode of disposal, someone made mention of eating the placenta. This came as a shocker to everyone, then this lady moved on to recount her own experience. She referred to placentas as the sweetest meat she has ever had till date. In her words placentas bang hard sha. I keep saying this

What To Do With My Wife's Placenta????? - Health (4) - Nigeri

The most popular placenta encapsulation process used widely around the world today is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) techniques, where the placenta is considered a powerful and sacred medicine - a 'full of life force' organ that should be consumed to support a healing mother after birth.. Placenta remedies are an important part of birthing history Placenta Encapsulation. The placenta keeps your unborn baby's blood supply separate from yours, but maintains a connection at the same time. It passes oxygen and nutrients from you to your baby via the umbilical cord and helps dispose of waste. Once your baby is born, the placenta is born too in the third stage of labour The results revealed that the disposal of the placenta according to the culturally acceptable way after childbirth was one of the norms women associated with home births in the rural areas of Ghana. The participants indicated that certain cultural practices such as taking the placenta home to be buried made them prefer giving birth at home as. Recent studies in Nigeria has estimated waste generation of between 0.562 to 0.670 kg/bed/day (Longe and Williams, 2006) and as high as 1.68 kg/bed/day (Olubunmi, 2009). As reported in the literature, there may not be much of a difference in the way and manner wastes generated in various health care institutions are managed in Nigeria. A good. Healthcare wastes are hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The waste disposal management in Addis Ababa city is seen unscientific manner. The waste management practice in the health facilities are poor and need improvement. This study will help different organizations, stakeholders and policy makers to correct and improve the existing situation of healthcare waste legislation and.

What To Do With My Wife's Placenta????? - Health - Nigeri

and dispose of waste [15]. Nigeria has the fourth-highest maternal mortality rate in the world, at 814 deaths per 100,000 births [16], over 10 times that of the global SDG target of 70 [17]. At 34 deaths per 1000 live births [1], neonatal mortality rates in Nigeria are almost three times the global SDG target of 12 per 1000 [17] Using a cross-sectional survey, we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in herds under extensive production system in southwestern Nigeria. Antibodies to Brucella species in serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-lin A placenta made life possible for every person on the planet but for a long time it was tucked away in a corner of medicine in the niche of women's health. The Ibo of Nigeria treat it.

Babatunde (1998, p. 131) describes delivery among the Ketu of Nigeria, which takes place in the ancestral shrine of a compound. This assures the protection of the ancestors and their help . . . (It) also sets the seal of ownership on the pater who cements his claim by being the one to dispose of the placenta In Nigeria the Ibo conduct full funeral rites for what they see as the baby's twin. Native Hawaiians traditionally plant the placenta with a tree, which can then grow alongside the child.'1. The placenta is the woman's property and she is entitled to dispose of it as she wishes. Women who birth in hospital often ask to take their placenta. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for Table 1: Shows the parameters of 20 cases of benign ovarian teratomas excised at cesarean section in Nigeria. Only the noted data are analyzed. Series Age Parity Side Size (cm) Stated etiology 1 16 0 R 5 Placenta praevia 2 38 3 L 8 Obstructed labor 3 39 10 B 3, 2 Obstructed labor Journal of Gynecology and Women's Healt Nigeria is grappling with a suspected outbreak of monkeypox, a smallpox-like virus that leaves victims with a painful rash and can be fatal if not properly treated. Health authorities in the West.

In Nigeria the Ibo conduct full funeral rites for what they see as the baby's twin. Native Hawaiians traditionally plant the placenta with a tree, which can then grow alongside the child.' 1. The placenta is the woman's property and she is entitled to dispose of it as she wishes Before You Dispose Your Baby's Placenta: Read This Leave a Comment / Uncategorized / By LMschool It i s quite unfortunate that most people give little thought to placenta while a few appreciate the marvellous complexity and profound importance, relevance of placenta after it has been discarded What is Placenta Chikwe Ihekweazu is an epidemiologist and consultant public health physician. He is the Editor of Nigeria Health Watch, and the Managing Partner of EpiAfric (www.epiafric.com), which provides expertise in public health research and advisory services, health communication and professional development

1. Sauté onion, bell pepper, and garlic in butter over medium heat for 10 minutes. 2. Cut the placenta into small pieces using either a very sharp knife or kitchen scissors. Add placenta pieces and ground beef to pot with the onion and garlic. Cook until ground beef is brown. Add spices, and mix well. 3 The Ibo of Nigeria consider the placenta the deceased twin of the baby, and conduct full funeral rites for it. Native Hawaiians believe that the placenta is a part of the baby, and traditionally plant it with a tree which can then grow alongside the child. In some cultures, the placenta is eaten, a practice known as placentophagy MPs in Nigeria and the substance flow analysis of selected precious and heavy metals and bromine as a basis for developing waste and resource management strategies. The results showed that between 2001 and 2013, approximately 54,050 t of MPs were imported to Nigeria containing approx. 8920 t of copper, 120 t of lead, 270 t o The formula for goat finisher is mineral mix 2kg, wheat offal 35kg, groundnut cake 37kg, salt 1kg and PKC 10kg. Nursing goats eat a special formula to aid milk production. The formula for nursing goat feed is mineral mix 2kg, salt 1kg, wheat offal 37kg, PKC 8 kg, and maize 52 kg. The formula for a pregnant goat is slightly different the maize. The placenta is not a filter that traps what it can't pass to the baby, like an air filter. There are substances that the placenta can not dispose of such a heavy metals. If a mother smokes cigarette during the pregnancy this causes a build up of heavy metal in the placenta making it unsafe to consume. The Ibo of Nigeria and Ghana.

The Ibo of Nigeria and Ghana treat the placenta as the dead twin of the live child and give it full burial. The indigenous Bolivian Aymara and Quecha people believe the placenta's own spirit, unless washed and properly buried by the husband in a secret and shady place, may affect the health of the mother and a baby Some African nations swaddle the placenta in blankets and bury it beneath a tree as a tree symbolizes ongoing life. The shadow of life: psychosocial explanations for placenta rituals explains. Culturally determined patterns of behavior associated with placenta disposal are characteristic of many modern and ancient societies State, Nigeria. E-mail: oketayodele@gmail.com . Abstract . For many developing cities across the world, waste management is always a major problem. The concentrations of some selected heavy metals in landfill leachates from Ondo State, Nigeria were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS) to ascertain th

'Nigeria's surgical waste management ineffective' An environmental activist, Nnimmo Bassey, said he was unsure that the nation's waste disposal system was effective and efficient Nigeria has over thirty five percent (35%) of her population living in the cities with a growing urbanization rate of about 7% per annum and less than ten percent (10%) of the city populations enjoying marginal waste management services The handling and disposal of MSW from its generation at source (by the waste producer) to incineration or. A win-win for disposing medical waste with biodigestion. 21 May 2020. Getting rid of infectious organic waste in hospitals through low-tech, sustainable biogesters not only captures methane gas and turns it into low-cost biogas, but it also reduces air pollution and its impact on climate change. There has been so much focus over the years on. Disposal of this waste is an environmental concern, as many medical wastes are classified as infectious or biohazardous and could potentially lead to the spread of infectious disease.The most common danger for humans is the infection which also affects other living organisms in the region. Daily exposure to the wastes (landfills) leads to accumulation of harmful substances or microbes in the. The CDC recently released a case study of a mother whose infant developed group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), an infection that causes respiratory problems, particularly in babies with sensitive immune systems. The baby caught GBS after the mom ate her dehydrated placenta in the form of two capsules taken three times daily, and most likely.

Retained Placenta: Placental tissue (afterbirth) should be expelled by the doe's body within 24 hours after parturition. Retained placenta can be caused by abortion diseases such as toxoplasmosis or chlamydiosis or can be the result of selenium deficiency in the doe's diet. Tall fescue grass or hay can be the culprit Depending on volume and type of medical waste generated, hospitals have a number of options when it comes to disposal. On-site as well as off-site options are available to some; however, before medical waste can be transported off the property of a medical waste generator, some of it must be properly treated to reduce or eliminate infectious potential of that waste before it hits the road to. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy, providing essential oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby. After the baby's birth, the placenta leaves the body, having fulfilled its purpose. Although most hospitals today simply dispose of placentas after childbirth, people from different religious and cultural traditions throughout history and to this day have honored.

19. Your placenta was buried in the waters. It fell into the hands of marine powers because it was not properly disposed of. The proper way to dispose of it is to burn it. 20. Marriage to spirit spouses from the waters. Some people move about as men and women but they are actually from the waters Hospitals, by comparison, usually dispose of the placenta shortly after the umbilical cord is cut. Advocates for lotus birth argue that prolonged contact with the placenta eases the newborn's.


The Human Placenta Project is working to change that. This $80 million research initiative at the National Institutes of Health is using MRI and other technologies to study how the placenta functions in real-time. The placenta is known for making life, for supplying a fetus with oxygen, water, nutrition, and a waste-removal system Malaysian Orang Asli regard it as thebaby's older sibling. In Nigeria the Ibo conduct full funeral rites for what they see as the baby's twin. Native Hawaiians traditionally plant the placenta with a tree, which can then grow alongside the child.'1 The placenta is the woman's property and she is entitled to dispose of it as she wishes Disposal of placenta and other pathological waste in non-engineered pits could also contaminate groundwater, the source of drinking water for several communities in Liberia. Many health care workers and the public are not familiar with the risk associated with healthcare waste; therefore, they carelessly ignore the conventional practices for.

Abstract: This article, part of a historical study of childbirth in the Sahel, draws upon oral interviews, ethnographic materials, and studies of midwifery to explore placenta burial in Niger. In the region the placenta is often referred to as the traveling companion that ushers the new human from one world to the next Nigeria. 5 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria. 6 Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Accepted 08 May, 2019 Erythroblastosis fetalis is a haemolytic disease of the rhesus negative [Rh- ] mother after the first gestation of a[ Rh+] neonate

Among the Eddo speaking people of mid-western Nigeria just as among other peoples of Africa, ancestor worship forms a part of the total religious and ritual institution of the people, so it was among the Eddos. so that the main objection to hospital delivery in such a case may be the method of disposal of the placenta. In such a case, the P. Disposal of the placenta to protect fertility Cultural practices and beliefs during postnatal period It was believed that the placenta had a special bearing on The women reported that immediately after birth the baby the preservation of the mother's fertility. Findings from a similar study in Nigeria was based on a number of reasons. For. In Nigeria and some countries where cattle are kept in close association with sheep and goats, infection can also be caused by B. melitensis[3,7]. Many pastoralists do not isolate cows during parturition or dispose of the placenta following calving, resulting in contamination of the environment and transmission of brucellosis within and. CONCUBINAGE AMONG NGWA IGBO OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA I89 strengthens this practice. Helping to foster pre-marital ethics is the belief, hardened into a religious dogma by the experiences of the alleged victims, that sexual inter-course in the daytime delays the placenta and may lead to death unless it is confessed and ritually neutralized

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Tromet Tablet is used for sexually transmitted infection (symptomatic trichomoniasis), genitourinary infection (asymptomatic trichomoniasis), asymptomatic sexual partners, or a parasitic infection of the colon (amebiasis). Learn how to use Tromet, and it's dosage, warnings, side-effects, and more According to recently available global monitoring data, approximately half of HCFs in Nigeria have access to an improved water source on premises and clean, usable sanitation facilities; 63% of facilities have handwashing facilities at the point of care; and 43% of facilities appropriately segregate, treat, and dispose of waste . Nigeria has. There is an ongoing outbreak of Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in Nigeria. VHF is a diverse group of animal and human illnesses characterized by fever and hemorrhage and are caused by five distinct ribonucleic acid virus families. These highly infectious viruses lead to a potentially lethal disease syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, vomiting, mucosal and gastrointestinal.

The placenta must be kept cold, on ice in a cooler, within 2 hours of the birth to avoid spoilage. It is imperative that the placenta is placed in a leakproof container or bag. No fixatives, formalin, or other chemicals must come into contact with the placenta. If the placenta cannot be processed within 3 days of the birth, it should be frozen Ganciclovir diffuses across the placenta. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations obtained 0.25 to 5.67 hours post-dose in 3 patients who received 2.5 mg/kg Ganciclovir intravenously every 8 hours or every 12 hours ranged from 0.31 to 0.68 mcg/mL, representing 24% to 70% of the respective plasma concentrations 19. Your placenta was buried in the waters. It fell into the hands of marine powers because it was not properly disposed of. The proper way to dispose of it is to burn it. 20. Marriage to spirit spouses from the waters. Some people move about as men and women but they are actually from the waters. l am Nigeria, stay in Kass Darfur. My. Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV); it is a type of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis E has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route that is similar to hepatitis A, although the viruses are unrelated. In retrospect, the earliest known epidemic of hepatitis E occurred in 1955 in New Delhi, but the virus was not isolated until 1983 by Russian. Goat Pox. Respiratory distress, nasal mucous discharges and fever are the most common symptom of goat pox disease. Other visible symptom of this disease is pox lesion on lips, thighs and udder in the affected goats. Vaccinate your goats regularly. Generally goat pox vaccine is applied once a year

If Nigeria wasn't backwards hospital should dispose without patients having fear or doubt. Meanwhile, poster don't you dare give your in law the placenta, it's creepy mehn, tradition my black hair. I'll rather donate donate the placenta than give it to FIL to do whatever Nigeria and other developing countries need to develop appropriate policies and systems for collection, re-use, recovery and disposal of wastes arising from these devices. Introduction The overall use and penetration rate of mobile phones in societies is increasing, even in remote rural areas in developing countries Usually your doe will lick off and clean her babies naturally. The placenta should come out within half an hour after delivery. You can dispose of it, or your doe can eat it. If the placenta doesn't emerge within two hours of the birth, then it's an emergency. And you have to call the vet as soon as possible Each year an estimated 200, 000 people in Nigeria are infected with Australian Antigen (HBV) about 1000 person die yearly from hepatitis related cirrhosis and about 5000 die from HBV related liver cancer. (HBV is second only to tobacco as a known cause of rumen cancer). Worldwide, HBV infects over 200 million people (Schlesinger & Schlesinger.

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Environmental risk is the probability and consequence of an unwanted accident. Because of deficiencies in waste management, waste transport, and waste treatment and disposal, several pollutants are released into the environment, which cause serious threats to human health along their way. The environmental impact includes two pollutant paths. 1 The practice of disposal of unwanted medicines in household bins has been reported in the UK, Kuwait and Lithuania . About 25% of remnant household pharmaceutical waste was disposed with municipal solid waste in Germany and Austria . In one study in Nigeria, all respondents reported discarding unused medicines in the household bin . The. Benzyl benzoate is one of the older preparations used to treat scabies. Scabies is a skin infection caused by the mite sarcoptes scabiei. It is characterised by severe itching (particularly at night), red spots, and may lead to a secondary infection family. The principal glucose transporter in the placenta is GLUT1, which is located in the syncytiotrophoblast. GLUT1 is located on both the microvillus and basal membranes. Basal membrane GLUT1 may be the rate limiting step in placental glucose transport. A twofold to threefold increase is seen in the expression of syncytiotrophoblas awaiting collection by the waste disposal board or contrac-tor. Another problem identified with this disposal method was that scavengers were seen picking the used needles, syringes, bottles and other disposables possibly for resale. First and foremost, more attention need to be given to the subject of hospital waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria 2. To show circumstances which dispose to viral hepatitis and suggest means of reducing the incidence. 3. To review the management of these patients with regards to vestigation done and treatment. 4. To understand the complex or exorbitant nature of the structure of the hepatitis B virus as well as the debilitating effect it has on the patient 5